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**academics:**

*n.*the collective term for academic subjects, i.e., subjects studied in school, college, or university. from the Greek

*akadēmeia*.

# Articles in Academics

**10 Steps to Write a Research Paper in APA Format**

APA format is the research paper style developed by the American Psychological Association. In college and graduate school, APA is the standard style for writing research papers that describe studies or experiments. Especially in psychology, sociology, and human health classes, professors often require students to write term papers in APA format.

## Read more on mathematics and academic topics:

Trig/Geometry | Stats | Algebra | Science | Writing |

### Science and Economics

Effective Population Size Calculator

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator for 3 Alleles

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator for 2 Alleles

Density of Ice and Liquid Water Calculator

How Many Molecules Are in a Glass of Water?

How Many Molecules Are in a Drop of Water?

What Is a Lorenz Curve?

Periodic Table of Elements

What is Air Made of?

How to Convert Among Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin

How to Compute Molecular Weight

Parabolic Trajectory Calculator

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator for 3 Alleles

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator for 2 Alleles

Density of Ice and Liquid Water Calculator

How Many Molecules Are in a Glass of Water?

How Many Molecules Are in a Drop of Water?

What Is a Lorenz Curve?

Periodic Table of Elements

What is Air Made of?

How to Convert Among Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin

How to Compute Molecular Weight

Parabolic Trajectory Calculator

### Algebra/Analysis/Other

Base-

Length of a Fibonacci or Lucas Number

Consecutive Integer Problem Solver

Least Common Multiple Calculator

Greatest Common Factor Calculator

Factor Pair Calculator

Third Order Linear Recurrence Sequences Calculator

Padovan/Perrin Sequences and the Plastic Number

First-Order Rational Recurrence Sequence Calculator

How to Solve a Second-Order Rational Recurrence Equation

Nested Square Root Calculator

Derangements/Subfactorial Calculator

Average Speed Calculator

Egyptian Fractions Calculator

Pentagonal Number Calculator

Prime Number Calculator

Integer Partition Function Calculator

Logarithmic Integral Calculator

Euler Totient Function Calculator

Divisor Function Calculator

Möbius Mu Function Calculator

Omega Function Calculator ω(n)

Sum of Consecutive Integers | Triangular Numbers Calculator

Sum of Consecutive Square Integers | Square Pyramidal Numbers

Sum of Consecutive Powers (3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th) Calculator

Sum of Consecutive Triangular Numbers | Tetrahedral Numbers

Geometric Series Calculator

Arithmetic-Geometric Series Calculator

How to Rationalize Denominators with Radicals

How to Rationalize Denominators with Complex Numbers

Palindrome Number Calculator

How to Simplify Radicals/Roots

Multiples of N Between A and B

How to Compute Square Roots by Hand

How to Compute Cube Roots by Hand

Long Multiplication Calculator

Babylonian (Divide-and-Average) Algorithm for Square Roots

Babylonian Algorithm for Computing Cube Roots Without a Calculator

Quick and Accurate Estimation of Square Roots

Quick Estimation of Cube Roots

Printable Tables of Logs, Trig, Inverse Trig, and Radicals

Modulo Calculator

How Many Digits Does a Large Exponent Have?

How to Compute Power Towers x

Equation of a Cubic Through 4 Points

How to Factor Gaussian Integers into Gaussian Primes

Fraction Comparison Calculator

Linear Diophantine Equation in Two Variables

How to Compute Complex Exponents (a+bi)

How to Calculate Doubling Time and Tripling Time

Quartic Equation Solver & Quartic Formula

Quintic Equation Solver

How to Factor Integers Over the Gaussian Primes

How to Solve Consecutive Integer Problems

How to Find the Rectangle with Maximum Area Under a Curve

How to Solve Radical Equations

Printable Table of Integrals

How to Write a Parabolic Equation in Vertex Form

Lambert W Function Calculator

Gamma & Log Gamma Function Calculator

Beta Function Calculator

Digamma Function Calculator

Error Function Calculator Erf(x)

How to Solve the Pell Equation

The Arithmetic-Geometric Mean

What are "Happy Numbers" and "Unhappy Numbers?"

How to Solve a Differential Equation with Separation of Variables

How to Solve a Differential Equation Using Integrating Factors

Properties of Logarithms and How to Solve Log Equations

How to Solve Exponential Equations

How to Simplify Fractions

Divisibility Rules

Formulas for Combination and Permutation

How to Convert Decimals and Fractions to Percents and Vice Versa

How to Find the Prime Factorization of a Number with a Factor Tree

How to Convert Repeating Decimals to Fractions

How to Solve

How to Convert Hexadecimal to Decimal

How to Convert Decimal to Hexadecimal

Equation for the Shape of a Hanging Rope, Cable, or Chain

How to Find the Equation of a Plane Through Three Points

How to Solve a System of Three Equations in Three Variables

How to Solve Absolute Value Inequalities

How to Solve Rational Equations

How to Convert a Number to Roman Numerals

Cubic Equation Solver

How to Calculate the Intersection of Two Lines

How to Find the Equation of a Parallel or Perpendicular Line

How to Solve Quadratic Equations

The Equation of a Circle Through Three Points

How to Survive College Calculus

How to Solve Word Problems About Train Speeds

How to Solve Math Problems About Combined Work

Whether or Not a Number is Prime or Composite

*n*Conversion Using the Remainder MethodLength of a Fibonacci or Lucas Number

Consecutive Integer Problem Solver

Least Common Multiple Calculator

Greatest Common Factor Calculator

Factor Pair Calculator

Third Order Linear Recurrence Sequences Calculator

Padovan/Perrin Sequences and the Plastic Number

First-Order Rational Recurrence Sequence Calculator

How to Solve a Second-Order Rational Recurrence Equation

Nested Square Root Calculator

Derangements/Subfactorial Calculator

Average Speed Calculator

Egyptian Fractions Calculator

Pentagonal Number Calculator

Prime Number Calculator

Integer Partition Function Calculator

Logarithmic Integral Calculator

Euler Totient Function Calculator

Divisor Function Calculator

Möbius Mu Function Calculator

Omega Function Calculator ω(n)

Sum of Consecutive Integers | Triangular Numbers Calculator

Sum of Consecutive Square Integers | Square Pyramidal Numbers

Sum of Consecutive Powers (3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th) Calculator

Sum of Consecutive Triangular Numbers | Tetrahedral Numbers

Geometric Series Calculator

Arithmetic-Geometric Series Calculator

How to Rationalize Denominators with Radicals

How to Rationalize Denominators with Complex Numbers

Palindrome Number Calculator

How to Simplify Radicals/Roots

Multiples of N Between A and B

How to Compute Square Roots by Hand

How to Compute Cube Roots by Hand

Long Multiplication Calculator

Babylonian (Divide-and-Average) Algorithm for Square Roots

Babylonian Algorithm for Computing Cube Roots Without a Calculator

Quick and Accurate Estimation of Square Roots

Quick Estimation of Cube Roots

Printable Tables of Logs, Trig, Inverse Trig, and Radicals

Modulo Calculator

How Many Digits Does a Large Exponent Have?

How to Compute Power Towers x

^{xx ...}Equation of a Cubic Through 4 Points

How to Factor Gaussian Integers into Gaussian Primes

Fraction Comparison Calculator

Linear Diophantine Equation in Two Variables

How to Compute Complex Exponents (a+bi)

^{c+di}How to Calculate Doubling Time and Tripling Time

Quartic Equation Solver & Quartic Formula

Quintic Equation Solver

How to Factor Integers Over the Gaussian Primes

How to Solve Consecutive Integer Problems

How to Find the Rectangle with Maximum Area Under a Curve

How to Solve Radical Equations

Printable Table of Integrals

How to Write a Parabolic Equation in Vertex Form

Lambert W Function Calculator

Gamma & Log Gamma Function Calculator

Beta Function Calculator

Digamma Function Calculator

Error Function Calculator Erf(x)

How to Solve the Pell Equation

The Arithmetic-Geometric Mean

What are "Happy Numbers" and "Unhappy Numbers?"

How to Solve a Differential Equation with Separation of Variables

How to Solve a Differential Equation Using Integrating Factors

Properties of Logarithms and How to Solve Log Equations

How to Solve Exponential Equations

How to Simplify Fractions

Divisibility Rules

Formulas for Combination and Permutation

How to Convert Decimals and Fractions to Percents and Vice Versa

How to Find the Prime Factorization of a Number with a Factor Tree

How to Convert Repeating Decimals to Fractions

How to Solve

*ab*^{x}= cx + dHow to Convert Hexadecimal to Decimal

How to Convert Decimal to Hexadecimal

Equation for the Shape of a Hanging Rope, Cable, or Chain

How to Find the Equation of a Plane Through Three Points

How to Solve a System of Three Equations in Three Variables

How to Solve Absolute Value Inequalities

How to Solve Rational Equations

How to Convert a Number to Roman Numerals

Cubic Equation Solver

How to Calculate the Intersection of Two Lines

How to Find the Equation of a Parallel or Perpendicular Line

How to Solve Quadratic Equations

The Equation of a Circle Through Three Points

How to Survive College Calculus

How to Solve Word Problems About Train Speeds

How to Solve Math Problems About Combined Work

Whether or Not a Number is Prime or Composite

### Trigonometry & Geometry

Cone Construction Calculator

Surface Area and Volume of a Capsule

Figure the Dimensions of an Ellipse Given the Area and Perimeter

Elliptical Arch Calculator

Barrel Dimensions Calculator & Formulas

Barrel Volume Calculator & Formulas

Graphs of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions

Graphs of Trig and Inverse Trig Functions

Dihedral Angle Calculator for Polyhedra

How to Compute the Area of a Kite

Pyramid of Balls Calculator

Pentagon Measurement Calculator

Hexagon Measurement Calculator

Octagon Measurement Calculator

Paraboloid Surface Area and Volume Calculator

Circles Inscribed Within an Annulus

Descartes' Theorem and Soddy Circle Radius Calculator for 4 Mutually Tangent Circles

Descartes' Theorem for Two Tangent Circles and a Line

Radius of a Circle Tangent to Two Circles and Inside Another Tangent Circle

3-Coordinate Triangle Calculator

Angle Between Two Lines

Triangle Bounded by 3 Lines

Integer Triangles with a 120° Angle

Integer Triangles with a 60° Angle

Pythagorean Theorem Proof

Nearly Equilateral Heronian Triangles

Heronian Triangle Generator

How to Generate Pythagorean Triples

Degree/Radian Conversion Calculator

Spherical Trigonometry Calculator

Golden Ratio Calculator

Silver Ratio Calculator

Square Root of 2 Ratio Calculator

Hexagonal Circle Packing Within a Rectangle

Ring of

How to Find the Radius of a Circle Within a Ring of

Parallelogram Calculator

Lamé Curve Calculator

Square Pyramid Calculator

Perimeter and Area of an Arch

Triangles in the Half-Plane Model of the Hyperbolic Plane

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find Triples (A, B, C) Where C = nA + k

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find Triples (A, B, C) Where B = nA + k

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find All Triangles with a Given Leg Length

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find All Triangles with a Given Perimeter

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find All Triangles with a Given Hypotenuse

How to Find the Intersection Angle of Two Circles

How to Find a Parabola's Equation from Its Directrix and Focus

Tetrahedral Volume from Vertex Coordinates

Tetrahedral Volume and Surface Area from Edge Lengths

Arc Length and Area of Parabolic Segment

How to Find the Directrix, Focus, and Vertex of a Parabola

Equation of a Conic Section Through Five Points

Measuring Observed Angles Without a Protractor

How to Find the Great Circle Distance Between Two Points on a Sphere

Volume of a Rectangular Trapezoidal Trough

Perimeter and Area of a Rounded Rectangle

Triangular Center Points

Angle and Radius of an Arc

How to Find the Sides of a Rectangle from the Perimeter and Area

Δ Side, Angle, & Area Calculator

Printable Trig and Angles Cheat Sheet

Area and Perimeter of an Ellipse or Circle

Area of an Ellipse Segment

Folding a Rectangular Box of Maximal Volume (Flapped Lid)

Folding Square Pyramid of Maximal Volume from a Square Piece of Paper

Folding a Rectangular Box of Maximal Volume (Open Top)

Folding a Cone of Maximal Volume from a Circle

Area of a Circular Segment

Volume, Surface Area, and Diagonal of a Rectangular Box

How to Calculate the Area, Perimeter, or Diagonal of a Rectangle

Area of a Regular Polygon with

Surface Area and Volume of a Sphere

Surface Area and Volume of a Cone

Surface Area and Volume of a Cylinder

Surface Area and Volume of a Spherical Cap

Surface Area and Volume of a Conical Frustum

Surface Area and Volume of a Torus

Surface Area and Volume of an Egg

How to Compute the Area of a Triangle: Four Methods

Surface Area and Volume of a Capsule

Figure the Dimensions of an Ellipse Given the Area and Perimeter

Elliptical Arch Calculator

Barrel Dimensions Calculator & Formulas

Barrel Volume Calculator & Formulas

Graphs of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions

Graphs of Trig and Inverse Trig Functions

Dihedral Angle Calculator for Polyhedra

How to Compute the Area of a Kite

Pyramid of Balls Calculator

Pentagon Measurement Calculator

Hexagon Measurement Calculator

Octagon Measurement Calculator

Paraboloid Surface Area and Volume Calculator

Circles Inscribed Within an Annulus

Descartes' Theorem and Soddy Circle Radius Calculator for 4 Mutually Tangent Circles

Descartes' Theorem for Two Tangent Circles and a Line

Radius of a Circle Tangent to Two Circles and Inside Another Tangent Circle

3-Coordinate Triangle Calculator

Angle Between Two Lines

Triangle Bounded by 3 Lines

Integer Triangles with a 120° Angle

Integer Triangles with a 60° Angle

Pythagorean Theorem Proof

Nearly Equilateral Heronian Triangles

Heronian Triangle Generator

How to Generate Pythagorean Triples

Degree/Radian Conversion Calculator

Spherical Trigonometry Calculator

Golden Ratio Calculator

Silver Ratio Calculator

Square Root of 2 Ratio Calculator

Hexagonal Circle Packing Within a Rectangle

Ring of

*n*Circles Inscribed Within a Larger CircleHow to Find the Radius of a Circle Within a Ring of

*n*CirclesParallelogram Calculator

Lamé Curve Calculator

Square Pyramid Calculator

Perimeter and Area of an Arch

Triangles in the Half-Plane Model of the Hyperbolic Plane

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find Triples (A, B, C) Where C = nA + k

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find Triples (A, B, C) Where B = nA + k

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find All Triangles with a Given Leg Length

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find All Triangles with a Given Perimeter

Pythagorean Triple Calculator: Find All Triangles with a Given Hypotenuse

How to Find the Intersection Angle of Two Circles

How to Find a Parabola's Equation from Its Directrix and Focus

Tetrahedral Volume from Vertex Coordinates

Tetrahedral Volume and Surface Area from Edge Lengths

Arc Length and Area of Parabolic Segment

How to Find the Directrix, Focus, and Vertex of a Parabola

Equation of a Conic Section Through Five Points

Measuring Observed Angles Without a Protractor

How to Find the Great Circle Distance Between Two Points on a Sphere

Volume of a Rectangular Trapezoidal Trough

Perimeter and Area of a Rounded Rectangle

Triangular Center Points

Angle and Radius of an Arc

How to Find the Sides of a Rectangle from the Perimeter and Area

Δ Side, Angle, & Area Calculator

Printable Trig and Angles Cheat Sheet

Area and Perimeter of an Ellipse or Circle

Area of an Ellipse Segment

Folding a Rectangular Box of Maximal Volume (Flapped Lid)

Folding Square Pyramid of Maximal Volume from a Square Piece of Paper

Folding a Rectangular Box of Maximal Volume (Open Top)

Folding a Cone of Maximal Volume from a Circle

Area of a Circular Segment

Volume, Surface Area, and Diagonal of a Rectangular Box

How to Calculate the Area, Perimeter, or Diagonal of a Rectangle

Area of a Regular Polygon with

*n*SidesSurface Area and Volume of a Sphere

Surface Area and Volume of a Cone

Surface Area and Volume of a Cylinder

Surface Area and Volume of a Spherical Cap

Surface Area and Volume of a Conical Frustum

Surface Area and Volume of a Torus

Surface Area and Volume of an Egg

How to Compute the Area of a Triangle: Four Methods

### Statistics and Probability

Online Covariance and Correlation Coefficient Calculator

Variance and Standard Deviation Calculator

Gini Coefficient Calculator

Laplace Distribution Random Number Generator

Gaussian (Normal) Random Number Generator

Log-Normal Random Number Generator

Chi-Squared Distribution Random Number Generator

Chi Distribution Random Number Generator

Pareto (Power) Distribution Random Number Generator

Cauchy Distribution Random Number Generator

Triangle Distribution Random Variable Generator

Weibull Random Number Generator

Logistic Distribution Random Number Generator

Discrete Uniform Sum Random Variable Generator

Log-Logistic Random Variable Generator

Gumbel Random Variable Generator

Continuous Uniform Sum Random Variable Generator

Random Number Generator

Binomial Distribution Calculator

Chi-Square Test Calculator

Chi-Square Table

3 Variable Exponential Regression: z = ab

3 Variable Power Regression: z = ax

Multiple Linear Regression: z = ax + by + c

How to Minimize the Sum of Perpendicular Offsets (Deming Regression)

Rational Function Regression Calculator: y = (ax + c)/(x - b)

Quadratic Regression Calculator

Least Squares Circle Calculator

Exponential Distribution Calculator

Weibull Distribution Calculator

How to Test Whether Data is Normally Distributed

How to Compute Normal Distribution Probabilities

How to Read a Z-Score Table to Compute Probability

The Difference Between Odds and Probability

Regression Calculator

Descriptive Statistics Calculator

Types of Mathematical Averages and Their Formulas

How to Compute Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation

Variance and Standard Deviation Calculator

Gini Coefficient Calculator

Laplace Distribution Random Number Generator

Gaussian (Normal) Random Number Generator

Log-Normal Random Number Generator

Chi-Squared Distribution Random Number Generator

Chi Distribution Random Number Generator

Pareto (Power) Distribution Random Number Generator

Cauchy Distribution Random Number Generator

Triangle Distribution Random Variable Generator

Weibull Random Number Generator

Logistic Distribution Random Number Generator

Discrete Uniform Sum Random Variable Generator

Log-Logistic Random Variable Generator

Gumbel Random Variable Generator

Continuous Uniform Sum Random Variable Generator

Random Number Generator

Binomial Distribution Calculator

Chi-Square Test Calculator

Chi-Square Table

3 Variable Exponential Regression: z = ab

^{x}c^{y}3 Variable Power Regression: z = ax

^{b}y^{c}Multiple Linear Regression: z = ax + by + c

How to Minimize the Sum of Perpendicular Offsets (Deming Regression)

Rational Function Regression Calculator: y = (ax + c)/(x - b)

Quadratic Regression Calculator

Least Squares Circle Calculator

Exponential Distribution Calculator

Weibull Distribution Calculator

How to Test Whether Data is Normally Distributed

How to Compute Normal Distribution Probabilities

How to Read a Z-Score Table to Compute Probability

The Difference Between Odds and Probability

Regression Calculator

Descriptive Statistics Calculator

Types of Mathematical Averages and Their Formulas

How to Compute Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation